Web development is a wide area of study with many deep areas of specialty.
My focus here is primarily front-end development, and web design.
Here's a quick stab at tools I've used in that pursuit.
This is a tiny distillation of the tools available in a field that evolves very quickly.
There are many ways to do this so don't trap yourself in my preferred toolset only.
BrowsersBrowsers are what people use to visit a web page. They used to be on computers only, but now appear on web-enabled phones, tablet computers, and more. Perhaps the best starting point is looking for current browser usage stats and resolving to cater to the browsers representing the primary user segments. Focusing on the main browsers, such as Firefox and IE currently, is time well spent. There are too many browser variations to list here, so I'm not going to even try. That said, here's the list that I've seen most frequently in various logs.
Developing graphicsPhotoshop has been the standard graphics package at many of the companies I've worked for. However, it's pretty expensive. Personally I'm fond of Paint Shop Pro, which is another for-pay product, but which has served me well over the years. GIMP is another great graphics program, and it's free! (Thank you GIMP folks!!)
FTP, SSH, SCPThese help you get your HTML from the place where you are building, editing, and testing it into the place where your users will consume it (on the web). FileZilla and CuteFTP are FTP clients I've used in the past. SSH is more secure. I've used Putty as an SSH client, though there are many other clients developer friends swear by. WinSCP is a client I use for transferring files via a more intuitive drag and drop interface--something more like what you see in Windows environments.
Another important aspect of web maintenance is monitoring. One I have used is Mon.itor.us which provides alerts and uptime reporting to help you keep track of your web host's availability and reliability.
There's MoreThis list is by no means exhaustive. If it's useful I'll work to keep it current and add additional resources over time.